The Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) is an administrative body operating under the USPTO. The PTAB includes two divisions, including: (1) the Appeals Division, which reviews appeals from patent examiner rejections of pending applications; and (2) the Trial Division handles post-grant review cases in Inter Partes Review (IPR), Post Grant Review (PGR), Covered Business Methods (CBM), as well as Deriviation Proceedings.
The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) is an administrative body operating under the USPTO. The TTAB is responsible for hearing and deciding certain trademark cases, including appeals from decisions by USPTO trademark examiners, as well as opposition proceedings filed against pending trademark applications.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an executive agency within U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents and trademarks to applicants. It is unique among all the federal agencies because it operates solely from fees collected by patent and trademark applicants, and not tax dollars. The USPTO is headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia, and include satellite offices in Dallas, Denver, Detroit, and San Jose.
A utility patent is issued for an invention of a new and useful "process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter" or an improvement thereof. Utility patents are intended to protect the function of the invention, up to a period of twenty years from the date of filing. Approximately 90% of all patents issued by the USPTO have been utility patents.